Having kept their borders shut for close to a quarter, countries around the world are coming out of the daunting shadows of coronavirus as a ray of hope shows itself in the form of subsiding new cases. As policymakers introduce new social distancing measures and people once again fill up office buildings, the world is, without a doubt, making its way towards the post-pandemic new normal. Nevertheless, amid the recovery, came the resurgence of a US-China dispute.
Being the world’s largest economy, it is said that when America sneezes, the world catches a cold. Now the world’s biggest exporter, China poses a similar level of influence. Certainly, when the superpowers are engaged in a tug-of-war, the global supply chain is bound to be disrupted. In relation to that, emerging markets in Southeast Asia (i.e. Thailand and Vietnam) are expected to be beneficiaries of investment (factory) relocations due to their pleasant investment climate.
However, the Philippines, in particular, is expected to be one of the smallest beneficiaries, if not a loser. This is by no means arbitrary, as the country’s foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows have been falling incessantly since 2017, reaching a four-year low of US$7.65 billion last year when its regional peers experienced an uptick in FDI. Once viewed as one of the most prospective emerging countries, why is the Philippines so unappealing in the eyes of foreign investors?
For starters, the Philippines lacks a nurturing climate for business investments. Referring to World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business Index as an indicator of investor-friendliness, the country was ranked at 95th, compared to 2nd for Singapore, 12th for Malaysia, and 21st and 70th for Thailand and Vietnam respectively. To further elaborate, it was revealed that the Philippines is especially inadequate in providing credit and enforcing contracts, in which it ranked 132nd and 152nd respectively, in addition to other challenges such as cross border trading issues and property registration. Seeing that these factors have a substantial bearing on businesses’ sustainability as well as their ability to expand, it is hardly surprising that foreign investors are discouraged.
Other than that, the current Philippine government’s policies have also put pressure on foreign capital inflows. In anticipation of the Corporate Income Tax and Incentive Reform Act (CITIRA) from the government, investors remained wary of the future status of their tax incentives. Currently still pending in the Senate, the CITIRA bill intends to reduce corporate income tax by one per cent every year, from the current level of 30 per cent to 20 per cent by 2029. Intended to spur foreign investment, the viability of the bill has raised a number of questions, as capital gains tax on unlisted shares of resident foreign corporations and nonresident foreign corporations is expected to increase from five to 15 per cent, prompting investors abroad to take a wait-and-see stance.
On top of that, political risks have also deterred foreign investors in recent years. The government’s “anti-oligarch” and “anti-big-business” rhetoric has raised doubts on regulatory bodies’ justness in reviewing and renewing contracts in the Philippines.For instance, the state water regulator recently cancelled a 15-year extension of the water utilities’ concession with Manila Water and Maynilad after pressure from Duterte. The existing concessions will expire in 2022, instead of 2037 as initially agreed in 2009. At the same time, raging allegations of human rights violations in the country (think the killing of drug addicts) have also come under international investors’ radar.
As a result of the mentioned incidents, the Philippines is seen as a relatively unfavourable destination for investment with raging political instability. Naturally, as an enabler of businesses, many have wondered if technological advancement could improve the status quo in the Philippines and, in turn, facilitate FDI inflows. Undoubtedly, by helping the unbanked and fostering credit, technology could make business processes more efficient. Notwithstanding that, political risks and failures to enforce business contracts would surely weigh on investments. Thus, in order to spur FDIs, the government needs to take the sanctity of contracts and regulations to heart, thereby instilling political stability in the country.
The article was originally published on e27
The ongoing US-China trade war has been talked about for more than two years and the glooming uncertainty that it brings towards the world economy is worrying. The relationship between the two nations was getting better at the start of the year when they signed a Phase 1 Trade Deal. However, with the recent Luckin Coffee accounting scandal followed by the US Senate passing a bill to delist Chinese companies from its exchange and the US blaming China for the coronavirus outbreak, this tension could possibly re-escalate and worsen the relationship again. But because of the current pandemic crisis that is happening across the globe, both countries have put their ongoing tension aside to focus on saving their own respective countries from this unprecedented crisis.
Singapore is well known to be an open economy and highly dependent on international trade. In 2019, Total Merchandise Trade stood at S$1,022 billion (US$738 million), which is a 3.19 per cent decline from SG$1,055 billion (US$762 million) in the previous year. Geographically, Singapore is strategically located as it is at the crossroads of major air and sea routes within the Asia Pacific region and the Indian subcontinent. Singapore also has the highest trade to GDP ratio in the world, averaging about 400 per cent from 2008 to 2011 and 326 per cent in 2018. Being at the centre of international trade, the US-China trade war will no doubt have a negative impact on Singapore.
Singapore is more exposed to the Chinese market with about 25 per cent of exports bound for mainland China (13 per cent) and Hong Kong (12 per cent), whereas the US only accounts for 7.64 per cent. Majority of the export items compromised of electronics and types of machinery. As for Singapore’s re-exports, approximately 20 per cent of re-exports (which is SG$274 billion or 52 per cent of total exports) goes to China (13.6 per cent) and US (6.1 per cent). According to the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the US-China bilateral trade made up 1.1 per cent of Singapore’s GDP in 2018. Hence, if there was a fallout between the US and China, these are the numbers that would be heavily impacted.
US tariffs that are directly applicable to Singapore affect a relatively small set of products which include solar panels, modules, washing machines, steel, and aluminium. Singapore’s exports of these products to the US accounts for only about 0.1 per cent of total exports. While many of the tariffs do not directly affect Singapore, they would still have a spillover effect due to Singapore’s role in China’s supply chain.
With that being said, goods and merchandise trade will definitely be impacted by the trade war. However, a silver lining could result from the US-China trade war and that is from the ongoing Hong Kong-China nationalisation dispute. Should Beijing impose the new National Security Law on Hong Kong, the US may remove its special treatment towards Hong Kong. The removal of this special treatment could lead to the US to treat Hong Kong the same way as it treats China, such as higher tariffs and export controls over sensitive technology. Apart from that, the Chinese government will also be able to track and seize rich Chinese money in Hong Kong as more than half of Hong Kong’s estimated private wealth of over US$1 trillion comes from the mainland.
Ultimately, this would impact Hong Kong’s status as one of Asia’s leading business and financial hub, therefore, forcing businesses, financial services and private wealth to relocate to Singapore, which is clearly the next best alternative in Asia. Last year alone during the early phase of the protest in Hong Kong, Goldman Sachs reported US$4 billion outflows to Singapore because of concerns over the protest and while global FDI stagnated in 2019, Singapore’s inward FDI jumped 42 per cent to US$110 billion.
Singapore will emerge as a winner in Asia thanks to the US-China trade war but the question is: Will this gain on the financial service sector be able to offset the decline in merchandise trade in the long run?
The article was originally published on e27
With the escalating trade dispute between the United States and China over the past two years, it has certainly induced an economic slowdown across the globe. While the trade tension stems from persistent growth in US trade deficit with China as well as the growing technological competition between the two major economies, this led to a series of tariff impositions to tackle the deficit which is mainly driven by electrical and electronics parts.The ASEAN region is particularly challenged by the negative spillover from the destruction of trade and severe impacts on supply chains, especially Thailand’s economy that is trade dependent and reliant on US and China as its key markets. In 2019, Thailand’s exports to China have seen a decrease of 3.8%, a decline for the first time in four years, with companies believed to be buying less parts for their Chinese production hubs.
However, there may be a silver lining to Thailand’s current situation – Thailand gained from trade diversion effects, with exports to the US having increased by 11.8% last year as American importers increasingly sought for alternatives to Chinese-made products. With foreign companies increasingly seek to relocate their production bases out of China due to the rising cost of production, Thailand’s exports are expected to benefit and recover once these factories ramp up their production. Coupled with the effects of Covid-19, manufacturers’ relocation has accelerated as businesses intend to reduce future supply chain risks.
The Kingdom has long been an attractive destination for foreign investments due to the availability of skilled labours and its capacity to produce high-value goods. Last year, Chinese investments in Thailand has surged to $8.6 billion, representing 5 times increase from the previous year and overtaking Japan as its largest source of FDI for the first time. Specifically, the automotive and electronics industry are some of the players gaining from the relocation of manufacturing base due to the country’s proximity to China and the relatively fragmented auto and electronics export market. Google has reportedly preparing for the production of its smart-home products in Thailand, while other players that have relocated to Thailand include Casio Computers, Daikin Industries, Sony, Sharp and Delta Electronics to name a few.
Perhaps what is driving the jump in foreign investments is not only the competitiveness of some Thai industries, but also the government’s initiatives to lure investments from manufacturers seeking to escape US tariffs on imports from China. In light of the US-China trade war, the Thai government played a crucial role in taking strategic moves to assist businesses that were affected. Among some of the actions taken was “Thailand Plus”, a stimulus package that contains various measures and incentives reportedly designed to improve the ease of doing business for companies looking to relocate full or part of their operations. Thailand’s Eastern Economic Corridor (EEC) along with the government’s Thailand 4.0 development plan have also attracted numerous projects application as it encourages investments into value-based, digital and innovation-driven industries by offering incentive packages such as tax reductions and holidays.
Thailand, being the leader in global automotive, electronics and electrical appliance industries, is poised to rise with readily available infrastructure and increasing investments that is able to support continuous adoption of advanced technology, specifically in the tech manufacturing space that is mainly driven by automation and robotics technology. Nevertheless, the future of Thailand remains uncertain as it is exposed to risk factors such as political instability, that might turn the investors away as they lose confidence.
The article was originally published on Asia Tech Daily